Investigative journalist Elzie Glaze said regarding the Kennedy assassination, “There is a very large spider guarding this web of secrecy. I have entered other webs, but this one is different because the spider leaves the web and stalks its prey – sometimes for many years.”  The spider was the Texas School Book Depository, and its web was in Dealey Plaza. It was a front for gun running, narcotics smuggling, and gathering intelligence on leftist organizations. Glaze’s metaphor shows that it also harbored a death squad that could, when it chose, set out to eliminate troublesome individuals who knew too much.
Virtually unknown today was the existence of another deadly spider that built its web in the vicinity of the Trade Mart near the intersection of Industrial and Harry Hines.
Since the early 1950’s Harry Hines Boulevard was the scene of a major construction boom. The newly built St. Paul’s Hospital, only three blocks from Parkland Hospital, was scheduled to receive its first patients in December 1963. Nearby was the Market Center consisting of three buildings, the Homefurnishings Mart, the Trade Mart, and Market Hall. An expansion to Market Hall was completed in April 1963, making it the largest privately owned exhibition hall in the world. A fourth building, the Apparel Mart, with over one million square feet of air-conditioned space, was due for completion in 1964. The office complex of Stemmons Towers, four of them twelve stories high, had one tower up and open for business, and a second in the process of construction. The Stemmons Towers and Market Center were projects of Trammell Crow, a well-known real estate developer and confidant of conservative Republicans, such as Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, and George H.W. Bush.
With so much building going on, the construction of a new schoolbook depository would have received little attention. It was only a short distance from the Trade Mart, just beyond the train track, on Harry Hines Boulevard. This same railroad crossing appears in Vincent Bugliosi’s book Reclaiming History, describing limousine driver Bill Greer’s frantic race to Parkland Hospital.
The motorcade exits the freeway onto the service road, barely slowing to make the right turn onto Industrial Boulevard, where the entrance to the Trade Mart was located. . . . The motorcade fast approaches Harry Hines Boulevard, where they’ll have to navigate a forty-five degree left turn toward Parkland Hospital. Just before Harry Hines, the road rises sharply to cross a railroad grade. The motorcycle escorts are familiar with the turn, but limousine driver Bill Greer is not, and he pushes the president’s car faster, moving dangerously close to the motor jockeys.
With the limousine’s front grill barking at their heels, the police escorts hit the rise wide open, go airborne, and nearly lose control as they slam to earth in the middle of the boulevard, thirty feet away. On contact, the Harley Davidson motorcycles bank hard into the left turn, sparks kicking up from their footstands dragging across the pavement.
The president’s car is right behind them, hitting the rise with a Whump! then into the turn on squealing tires. Greer is doing all he can to handle the careening limousine, which bumps J.W. Courson’s motorcycle briefly into the curb. The men frantically pull out of the turn and accelerate toward the emergency entrance of Parkland Hospital three-quarters of a mile up the road. It’s a wonder they haven’t been wrecked yet. 
The near wreck of Courson’s motorcycle occurred almost in front of the Lone Star School Book Depository, a two-story, masonry office building, with a flat roof. It had a warehouse in back, built with pre-cast, concrete tilt-walls and steel frame, twelve feet high, 160 by 240 feet, with a sloped roof. The LSBD recently moved here from its old location on Browder Street in downtown Dallas, where it had been since the mid-1920’s. The company was formed in 1923 when Forrest R. Carlton, William E. Zehner, and Henry J. Landrum bought the remaining assets of the defunct Southern School Book Depository, based in Atlanta, Georgia. The assets came from the Dallas office, which the Georgia firm opened in 1907, a year before the establishment of the Texas School Book Depository.
The new facility was built on a vacant area that originally belonged to the Texas Highway Commission. The land was triangular in shape, consisting of 7.68 acres, bounded by Harry Hines Boulevard, Kendall Lane, and the MKT railroad. In 1956 the commission removed a pair of galvanized metal storage sheds, divided the land into three lots, and put them up for bid (Dallas Morning News 11-16-56). Although it received a fair number of bids, the only one it accepted was for the lot adjacent to Kendall Lane, at 4646 Harry Hines, sold to Binswanger Glass for $125,000. The commission decided to defer selling the other two lots until a later time (DMN 11-23-56).
Binswanger sold automobile windshields, mirrors, desk tops, but mostly it installed flat glass for construction. The company originated in Richmond, Virginia in 1872 and had branches in eight other states. For some reason, the Dallas branch continued to work out of its old facility on Lamar Street, where it had been since 1942. Six years later, Trammell Crow built a 50,000-square-foot building with parking spots for 150 vehicles, at 4646 Harry Hines, and leased it to Binswanger in September 1962. Crow then sold the lease two months later to James R. Curtis, the owner of a radio station in Longview, Texas (DMN 9-9-62 and 11-1-62). At the time of the move, Binswanger was in the middle of a project so huge it dwarfed anything it had done previously. The ten-story Cabana Motor Hotel required 28,000 square feet of standard mirror in 300 rooms plus 5000 square feet of gold vein antique mirrors for the lobbies (DMN 1-27-63). The hotel, which opened in January 1963, was built with funds controlled by the Teamsters Union.  Money from this source might have been the means to keep the glass company from getting too curious about its secretive neighbor.
Construction on the third lot began in April 1963 for General Automotive Parts. This company came into existence in late 1962 with the merger of four previously existing corporations. Its new headquarters was going to be a three-story building at 4600 Harry Hines with over 113,000 square feet of warehouse and office space. Since the firm was a member of National Automotive Parts Association, the NAPA name appeared on the side of the building in large, block letters. (See Picture 3)
The consecutive construction of three buildings in a row made the emergence of the LSBD less noticeable to passing motorists. After completion, the two buildings on each side reduced the visibility of the LSBD – a desirable effect for those who planned to use the premises for a nefarious purpose.
When the president came to Dallas, people standing in front of, or near, the LSBD might have been astonished at the recklessness of the president’s limousine tearing down Industrial Boulevard and briefly going airborne over the railroad grade. As an experienced driver, Greer should have known that when crossing a train track, he must brake to a suitably slow speed to avoid losing control.
Now if Greer had to go slow in one direction, it is of course logical that he had to slow down coming from the opposite way. Let us assume that the motorcade had not gone the way it actually went historically, but instead departed from Love Field using an alternate route. As the procession went south on Harry Hines Boulevard, it had to cross the train track before it could get to the Trade Mart. Here the president’s driver had to slow down to a crawl, or stop completely, waiting for (1) the advance car, (2) the pilot car, (3) five lead motorcycles, and (4) the lead car to take their turns maneuvering over the track. Immediately to the left of this spot and not more than 200 feet away was the schoolbook depository, well within the range of a trained sniper. Just as the 120 degree turn from Houston onto Elm was a potential motorcade trap, so also was the railroad crossing.
The rooftops of the three buildings with the train crossing just beyond the trees can be seen in Picture 4.
The Homefurnishings Mart is the large, square-shaped building near the top of the picture, the Trade Mart is in the middle, and next to it is Market Hall. The large vacant area next to Market Hall on the right edge of the picture is the future site of the Apparel Mart.
Picture 6 is a modern view taken from the same angle. Another view of the railroad crossing looking toward the buildings of Binswanger, LSBD, and NAPA can be seen in Picture 7.
One sniper team could have been posted on the top of the depository, and a second team disguised as construction workers or men moving auto parts could have gone up to the roof of the unfinished NAPA building.
The possibility of a kill zone at the railroad crossing provides an answer to those touting the lone gunman theory. In his memoirs The Advance Man, Jerry Bruno said that of the five cities the president was planning to visit in Texas, the least likely for a plot to occur was in Dallas. This was because of the long uncertainty over whether the Women’s Building or the Trade Mart would be selected for the president’s luncheon.
“So,” according to Bruno, “until less than a week before Kennedy’s Texas trip, the Dallas luncheon site was the one part of the trip that hadn’t locked up. It’s for this reason that I was never able to believe the conspiracy stories afterward. The motorcade routes for every other city were released weeks in advance. Anybody planning to kill the President could have planned it for any city except Dallas – because the motorcade route wasn’t known until a day or two before the President’s visit.” (emphasis in original text) Let us assume that Bruno had prevailed and that the Trade Mart was not the site for the luncheon. The motorcade would depart Love Field by turning right – not left – on Mockingbird Lane. Proceeding south on Harry Hines Boulevard and passing Market Center, it would then travel two miles on Stemmons Freeway, get off at Main Street, and go through the downtown area into Fair Park where the Women’s Building was located. If Kennedy went that way, he would have gone through Dealey Plaza at normal traffic speed and at a distance further away from the TSBD. “At that speed and distance,” Bruno said, “it would have been impossible for a sniper to hit him from the Depository.”
On the other hand, according to Governor Connally, the choice of the Trade Mart might not have been fatal, if the president had skipped the motorcade entirely. Motorcades, he said, were “exhausting” – all that waving to the crowds, smiling block after block, worrying about the wind ruffling your wife's hair, and trying to look interested, but not overdoing it so that you appear foolish. A motorcade in Fort Worth might be okay, but a second one in Dallas would be too much, and the president needed to be fresh for all the important appearances of the day. 
The governor’s planning staff in Dallas nearly succeeded in keeping the motorcade off the schedule. Despite numerous requests, prospects for a downtown parade were not good because of a “tight schedule and security regulations." Instead the president would make a fast ride to either the Women’s’ Building or the Trade Mart by the “most direct traffic artery.” Sponsors for the luncheon saw “little chance that the President will change his plans to include a motorcade through Downtown Dallas” (DMN 11-15-63). Yet, three days later, on November 18, White House staff and the Secret Service decided to have a motorcade after all. This decision, according to one article, cost him his life (DMN 11-23-63).
1. Surveying the area to find suitable lines of sight for a crossfire.
2. Recruiting expert gunmen to do the job.
3. Positioning and controlling a patsy within the book depository.
4. Stacking boxes for the sniper’s nest on the sixth floor.
5. Planting the rifle, bullets, and paper bag.
6. Posting phony Secret Service men to create confusion.
7. Exhibiting three tramps escorted by a policeman to distract spectator attention.
8. Directing a clean-up crew to comb the plaza for stray bullets, bone fragments, bullet holes in signs, etc. and remove them for disposal.
The ingenuity and organizational skill evident above indicates that the conspirators foresaw the need for a backup plan in case the president went a different way. The railroad crossing on Industrial Boulevard was the best place for an alternate ambush site, and the schoolbook depository nearby was the best place to deploy an assassination team. Whichever destination the president went – whether to the Women’s’ Building or to the Trade Mart – it made no difference. There was no escape from the traffic-restraint zones guarded by the schoolbook depositories.
In 1954, Ross Carlton helped form the Texas Citizens Council to oppose integration, shortly after the Supreme Court ruled that schools must desegregate. As chairman of the executive committee, he publicly denounced the NAACP, saying it was filled with numerous officials who were “either Communists or members of Communist front organizations” and that he could cite which ones (DMN 12-4-1955). In 1956 he ran for the office of state attorney general on the pro-segregationist ticket. Serving as his campaign manager was his mother, Mary Carlton (DMN 7-7-1956). As it turned out, Ross lost the election, coming in a poor third.
Mary Zehner Carlton was the treasurer of the LSBD. As a Southern Democrat, she was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1936, 1940, and 1944. At the state nominating convention in May 1944, she was among the “Texas Regulars” attempting to prevent a majority of electoral votes from going to Franklin Roosevelt by putting in a slate of twenty-three electors who would vote against him. Mary was among the selected electors (DMN 7-7-1956). Roosevelt New Dealers countered this ploy at a second nominating convention four months later by selecting a second slate of electors that would vote for the president. The matter was resolved when the Texas Supreme Court decided in favor of the pro-Roosevelt faction.
While all this was going on, Mary gave a lot of her time to helping Governor Coke Stevenson win his re-election campaign (DMN 8-22-84). Although today remembered as the man who, four years later, barely lost the senate race due to Lyndon Johnson’s ballot stuffing in Alice, Texas, Stevenson was also “a defender of racial segregation and even of violent racism,” according to Johnson’s biographer Robert A. Caro. When race riots broke out in Beaumont or a lynching in Texarkana, Stevenson refused to intervene or investigate.  Mary was also active in local politics. As president of the Public Affairs Luncheon Club (which she founded), she often invited speakers, such as George Wallace, William F. Buckley, Barry Goldwater, and Ronald Reagan, warning of the dangers of leftists and communists. In 1955, her club vigorously pressured the Dallas Museum of Fine Arts to withhold exhibition privileges from artists identified by the House Un-American Activities Committee as having affiliations with Communist or Communist Front organizations. 
The people of the TSBD were likewise ultraconservative. Roy Truly, the building manager, strongly disapproved of Kennedy’s foreign policies and believed him to be a “race mixer.”  Gladys Cason, wife of the president of the TSBD, said on one occasion that someone ought to shoot President Kennedy.  Her husband Jack was active in the American Legion since 1945. As post commander, he was involved, or simpatico, with J. Edgar Hoover’s recruitment of Legionnaires as informants. By 1943, some 60,000 Legion members belonging to 11,000 posts around the country served as confidential informants. Among their tasks was safeguarding the security of defense plants, transportation facilities, and public utilities. 
In line with the FBI’s mission to spy on leftist groups was Joe Molina, who worked as
credit manager at the TSBD since 1947. Molina and FBI undercover agent Bill Lowery worked together to infiltrate the American GI Forum, a leftist organization. Working for the CIA was William Shelley, who was in the TSBD miscellaneous department. Billy Lovelady, truck driver for the TSBD, was involved in an illegal weapons deal when he was in the Air Force in Washington DC.  Joe Bergin, manager of the Scott Foresman office on the fourth floor of the TSBD, was secretly a Texas Ranger.
The link of the schoolbook business to the intelligence agencies is well-established. Working as law editor for Bobbs Merrill in Indianapolis since the late 1960s was CIA agent William Harvey,  who played an active part in the Kennedy assassination. On the third floor of the TSBD was McGraw-Hill. It was not only a publisher of schoolbooks, it was also was a contractor for the Foreign Technology Division, devoted to collecting data on Soviet aerospace technology. Professors and scholars engaged in this activity used as their cover the seemingly innocuous name of the schoolbook firm.  At 4640 Harry Hines Boulevard was the office of Van Nostrand. In September 1965 a Van Nostrand schoolbook salesman, Newcomb Mott, entered the Soviet Union without a visa by crossing the Norwegian border. SHe TheTheuspecting him of being a CIA agent, the Soviets arrested Mott and put him on trial for entering the country illegally. He was convicted and sentenced to a forced labor camp. Before he got there, he committed suicide, or was murdered, using a razor blade received in a gift package from the American Embassy. Mott’s entry into the Soviet Union by a little known and remote route parallels the way Lee Harvey Oswald entered the Soviet Union via Finland. 
When Oswald returned to the United States, his friend George de Mohrenschildt helped him get a job at a typesetting company called Jaggars Chiles Stovall at 522 Browder Street, where it had been since 1941. He worked as a cameraman from October 1962 to April 1963. Although most of his work was commercial, some of it consisted of top secret projects for the Navy Bureau Materiel and the Army Mapping Service.
At 703 and 707 Browder Street was the old LSBD. The close proximity of two companies, both engaged in anti-communist or anti-Soviet activities, suggests a common bond between them. If they worked in tandem in the plot to kill the president, then it was no coincidence that Oswald, the future patsy, started working for the typesetting company at the same time construction began on the new schoolbook depository on Harry Hines Boulevard.
Preparations for the hit in Dallas began as early as 1961, when steps were taken to remove a long-standing tenant from the 411 Elm Street building. Sexton Quality Foods, a wholesale grocery firm headquartered in Chicago, had been using the building as a warehouse since January 1, 1941. To induce the Sexton Company to vacate the premises, Trammell Crow contracted a construction company to build a single-story, 60,000-square-foot, masonry structure (suitable for forklifts), on four and half acres in the Brook Hollow Industrial District. When it was finished in October 1961, Crow leased it to Sexton (DMN 9-3-61). Sexton vacated the Elm Street building on November 14, 1961. The following year, perhaps in the fall of 1962, the TSBD began making extensive modifications, such as the addition of office suites to the third and fourth floors and installing a passenger elevator. These improvements delayed the opening of the building to the summer of 1963, about five to six months after the LSBD had already moved to Harry Hines Boulevard.
Precisely when they relocated is an undiscovered fact shrouded in deception. According to O.V. Campbell, vice president of the TSBD, the company moved into the building about five years before the assassination. Spaulding Jones, office manager for Macmillan, said it had been there since 1958. Mary Lea Williams, an employee of Allyn & Bacon, said three years.  The compelling need to lie on a matter so readily contradicted by the public record indicates the futility of seeking an innocent motive for the moving depositories.
William Zehner was a teenager when he was employed at the LSBD during the summers of 1957 through 1962. He was descended from a long line of men, all with the name William Zehner, who had careers in the LSBD. His great-grandfather was one of the founders and secretary-treasurer. His grandfather was vice president, and his father also worked there. When I asked him when the LSBD moved to Harry Hines Boulevard, he said “sometime in the late sixties.” Again the public record shows this statement to be false. 
Mr. Zehner said that two depositories were needed to accommodate publishers requiring offices on the premises and to overcome limitations of warehouse space. Reasonable though this answer might be, it is nonetheless suspicious why both companies at the same time expanded their warehouse capacity by moving into buildings that just happened to be adjacent to atypical road features that substantially reduced traffic speed. When the LSBD moved to Harry Hines, it did not relinquish the Browder Street facility but continued to use it during the busy months of April through September.  Likewise, when the TSBD moved into the Elm Street building, it continued to store and distribute books from its four-story warehouse at 1917 N. Houston.
In a state as large and as spread out as Texas is, having two schoolbook depositories in the same city seems to be an unnecessary duplication of labor and resources. In the other twenty states that had laws mandating state-adopted textbooks, most had only one. States with more than one were Tennessee and Idaho, which set up regional depositories.  The unique situation in Dallas seems to lack common sense from a business perspective, but from the perspective of clandestine operations, having two depositories might be useful – perhaps to play a shell game on investigators seeking to uncover criminal activities.
The plan to kill John F. Kennedy in Dallas was set in motion sometime prior to the construction of the new Sexton building in 1961. According to Mae Brussell, Kennedy was marked for death the day he was nominated for the presidency on July 13, 1960. Two months later, Dallas had an opportunity to compare the Republican and Democratic candidates on two consecutive days. On September 12, 1960, about 100,000 people were on the streets to greet the motorcade of Richard Nixon. At the Memorial Auditorium, he spoke before an audience of 9000 people. The following day, Kennedy’s motorcade rolled into Dallas, cheered by a much larger crowd of 175,000 people. Confetti streamed down from the buildings along Main Street. Crowds broke through police lines and milled around the convertible. Kennedy’s car made slow progress until some began to march alongside. At the Memorial Auditorium, Kennedy drew a full house, which seated 11,000. In his speech, he said “There is no question that the vice president is in the Republican tradition – Taft, Harding, Landon, Dewey . . .” and the roar from the crowd drowned out his words as he ticked off his list. The Texan oilmen must have viewed with alarm and rage the thunderous reception Kennedy received in the very heart of Republican Dallas.
The following day, as stories of Kennedy’s triumphant two-day tour in Texas appeared in the newspapers, Robert Maheu, aide to Howard Hughes, and James O'Connell, CIA chief of the operational division, met with and Johnny Roselli of the Mafia to discuss plans to kill Cuban leader Fidel Castro. According to Brussell, what the three men really discussed was the assassination of Kennedy, using the Castro plot as a cover. If the city of Dallas was not mentioned as a possible location for the assassination at this time, it might have been in a follow-up meeting.
The detailed arrangements for the assassination in Dealey Plaza would have been short-sighted if the conspirators lacked a backup plan. Having a second team at the buildings near the railroad crossing would have covered the alternate route the president’s car was expected to take. Considering the cost, logistics, and coordination of personnel at two separate places, it becomes a wonder why the conspirators did not choose some simpler means of killing the president, such as recruiting a man with a gun (aided if necessary by one or more backup shooters) who would stalk his quarry and rush in for the kill at an opportune moment, as was the case with Lincoln, Garfield, and McKinley.
Perhaps the reason why they chose such an elaborate modus operandi should be looked for in the man whom they wanted dead. Kennedy was a controversial president who advocated reducing the oil depletion allowance, giving civil rights to black people, calling for freedom and democracy in colonial nations, establishing friendly relations with the Soviet Union, and fostering peace instead of war. In killing the man in such a spectacular and gruesome way in broad daylight they hoped to kill the ideals for which he stood for. Ironically, the prodigious manner in which the assassination was done speaks more dramatically of what the world lost when Kennedy died than any eulogy, no matter how stirring or eloquent, could ever articulate.
Here are the answers to three frequently-asked questions:
(1) Did Ross Carlton have a connection to the Texas School Book Depository?
When the 411 Elm Street building appeared on the news, Elton Marsh recognized it as the place where an attorney named Ross Carlton had his office. He went on to say that Carlton was the “President of the Texas Text Book Company in the same building.” In spite of these assertions, the name of Ross Carlton does not appear in the city directory listings for the TSBD nor in the TSBD corporation papers. Nevertheless, Marsh’s puzzling remarks may serve as a vehicle to explore an unknown connection between Carlton and the TSBD. The president of record was Jack Cason. According to an autobiography written by his wife Gladys, Jack was not a man who took charge of things but rather preferred to let others do the work. His main goal in life was to enjoy drinking parties late into the night. 
Such a man might welcome an experienced colleague who could make the decisions of a president while leaving him with the title. As for Carlton, he might have welcomed a front man whom he could control while he ran the public as well as the shadowy aspects of the business. Shedding more light on this matter is a passage from the memoirs of Oswald’s employment counselor, Laura Kittrell. She had in years past send applicants to the Texas School Book Depository. Checking into the background of these applicants was not Jack Cason nor Roy Truly, but “the Ross Carlton family” who, she said, were the owners of the Texas School Book Depository. According to Kittrell, the Carltons, sold the depository “a year or so before the assassination,” but apparently still maintained control over the screening of applicants. If she tried to send someone to the TSBD “who was not a 100% red-blooded, true-blue American,” the Carltons would loudly complain.
She was therefore surprised how easily Lee Harvey Oswald got his job at the TSBD with his undesirable discharge from the Marine Corps. Puzzling over why the Carltons had hired Oswald, she thought they were finally relaxing their standards in order to fill job positions that earned very little pay.  Kittrell did not know that Oswald was approved by the CIA, according to George de Mohrenschildt, who spoke with the Domestic Contacts Service Chief, J. Walton Moore. He was also an undercover agent for the FBI. The Carltons were probably aware of Oswald’s counterintelligence background when Roy Truly hired him on October 15, 1963.
(2) Was there a conspiratorial motive behind Governor Connally’s insistence that the president should go to the Trade Mart instead of the Women’s Building?
According to the Torbitt Document, John Connally was “an active participant in the assassination plans.” As someone knowing in advance what was going to happen (although not expecting himself to be shot!), Connally might have been worried about having the luncheon at the Women’s Building where a large crowd of Kennedy supporters would be massed together, waiting for the appearance of their hero. It was easy to predict their shock and horror after they heard the news of the shooting, but it was not easy to predict what they would do afterwards or how they would appear on the television broadcasts. It would be much better to have the luncheon at the Trade Mart, where news cameras would focus on the somber and subdued reaction of the wealthy elite when they received the tragic news.
(3) Was there a conspiratorial motive behind Governor Connally’s desire to skip the motorcade?
Skipping the motorcade would not have saved the president’s life as Connally would have us believe. If the procession did not go through Dealey Plaza, it would have taken the alternate route on Harry Hines Boulevard, where a second ambush site was prepared. Perhaps Connally did not want a repeat of what happened the last time Kennedy had a parade in Dallas. Another possibility is that Connally wanted to provide a favor to his friends waiting with binoculars at the Market Center. As the president’s limousine approached the train track, they would have had a clear view of the shooting from start to finish.
1. See William Weston, “The Texas School Book Depository and the Dallas Conspiracy” in The Dealey Plaza Echo March 2006. This and other articles by the author are available online at the Mary Ferrell archive.
2. Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History (W.W. Norton: New York, 2007) pp. 50-51. Bugliosi’s source was Larry Sneed’s No More Silence.
3. Commission Exhibit 1229, in Volume 22 of the Warren Commission Hearings and Exhibits, p. 338.
4. Bruno, Jerry and Greenfield, Jeff, The Advance Man (Bantam: New York, 1974), p. 91.
- John Connally, In History’s Shadow: An American Odyssey (Hyperion: New York, 1993), pp. 181, 183.
- Commission Document 27 - FBI Reid Report of 01 Dec 1963 re: Oswald/Russia, available online at the Mary Ferrell archive.
- Suro, Roberto, “A 1940's Texan Rides High,” The New York Times, March 22, 1990.
- Carraro, Francine, Jerry Bywaters: A Life in Art (University of Texas Press, 2010), pp. 175-182.
- William Manchester, Death of a President (Harper & Row: New York, 1967), p. 49.
- FBI report of M. Theodore Taylor interview by A. Raymond Switzer, June 12, 1964, File No. DL 89-43, available online at the Mary Ferrell archive.
- Charles McCormick’s This Nest of Vipers: McCarthyism and Higher Education in the Mundel Affair, (University of Illinois Press, 1989), pp. 43-44.
- Rivera, Larry, “Billy Lovelady: A Troubled Past,” 28 September 2012 on oswald-innocent.com.
- William Harvey obituary in The New York Times, June 14, 1976.
- Jacques Vallee, Forbidden Science (North Atlantic Books: Berkeley, Calif. 1992), p. 289.
- Newcomb Mott story in the Chicago Tribune, January 29, 1966.
- Telephone interviews of O. V. Campbell, Mar. 19, 1994; Spaulding Jones, Mar. 19, 1994; and Mary Lea Williams April 4, 1994.
- Telephone interview of William M. Zehner, March 24, 2001. He died of cancer on March 16, 2002.
- Lawsuit between LSBD and Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union, AFL-CIO, Case NO. 16-CA-2385, April 18, 1966, available online.
- Monahan, A.C. “Free Textbooks and State Uniformity” in The Publishers’ Weekly, July 22, 1916, available online. Not counted in this discussion are the depositories owned and operated by individual publishers in some states.
- Cason, Gladys, One Life, (GSC Creations, 2004), pp. 67-71.
- Laura Kittrell’s typewritten memoirs consisting of ninety pages is designated as FBI record no. 124-10057-10339; Agency file no. 62-109060-4052